Christina Surmei


Christina is a qualified Educator and Academic, and is currently completing her PhD within the discipline of Educational Neuroscience – Mind, Brain, and Education. Some of Christina’s research interests include; Emotional Development and Well-being, Educational Neuroscience, Play, ASD, Modern Slavery, Policy and Law, Paediatric Neurology, Genetics, variants of academic Voice, and Early Childhood Curriculum. Christina is a member of the Golden Key International Honour Society, and the Australian College of Educators.


Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, Social Determents of Health, Modern Slavery, the Disconnect in Australian Society (Poster Presentation)

This paper dissects anthropological modes of welfare, safety, health and wellbeing via three areas of human rights; Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, the Social Determents of Health, and Modern Slavery. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs is a stage theory in psychology encompassing a five layer archetype of human necessity. The five archetypes are; physiological, safety, love and belonging, esteem and self-actualization (Maslow 1943). The Social Determents of Health are the multifaceted conditions in which individuals are born and live in that affects their health. They comprise of six factors; Economic Stability, Neighbourhood and Physical Environment, Education, Food, Community and Social Context, and the Health Care System (Artiga & Hinton 2018). Modern Slavery can include (but is not limited to) human trafficking, exploitation, violence, threats or coercion, forced marriage, sexual exploitation, emotional and physical abuse, and detainment (Amnesty International Australia 2019). This paper asks; does Australia cater to all citizens equally in upholding Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, and the Social Determents of Health? Who is affected by Modern Slavery in Australia? Are there any distinguishing variables within the three areas of human rights that exhibit bias? A Systematic Review was conducted. The results revealed that not all Australian’s have equal access to Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs and the Social Determents of Health. Modern Slavery affects citizens / residents exceeding ten cultural groups. Our First Australian’s, individuals with disabilities and women and children are noted to be under supported on all counts. This paper calls for supplementary research within Anthropology and human rights.


Modern Slavery and Domestic Violence: Nexus and Themes within Various Forms of Literature, Australia (Poster Presentation)

The province of Child Protection is of constant importance and a permanent thought of professionals housed in various disciplines working in partnership with young children, young adults, parents, families, senior citizens and communities. Some of those individuals are afflicted with the cruel and unrelenting hand of contemporary societal ailments of Modern Slavery and Domestic Violence. Child Protection is defined as processes and arrangements to inhibit and reply to abuse, neglect, exploitation and violence affecting children (Save the Children 2007). Modern Slavery is an umbrella term meaning (but not limited to) slavery, servitude, trafficking of individuals, forced labour, debt bondage, forced marriage, and sale of or sexual exploitation of children (Anti-Slavery International 2019). Domestic Violence in Australia can comprise of (but not limited to) physical assault, sexual assault, verbal abuse, emotional abuse, financial abuse, technology-facilitated abuse, social abuse, and spiritual abuse (Phillips & Vandenbroek 2014). This paper examines publications via a Review of the Literature of the prevalence of Modern Slavery and Domestic Violence as separate and mutual bodies within Australia. The results revealed that Modern Slavery and Domestic Violence are affiliated as joint entities within Australia, although as separate entities more widespread research exists. A gender bias also exists, females being more associated and likely to be a victim of Modern Slavery and Domestic Violence. This paper has uncovered a noteworthy societal anomaly that requires more research to unpack its effect on the lives of vulnerable Australians.

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